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spring对象加载源码分析

我们以FileSystemXmlApplicationContext作为入口,过一下spring加载xml文件, 实例化bean的源码。
先放一张简图,左侧部分是继承关系; 右侧部分是根据代码分析的简要uml模型。


解析xml、加载class、生成BeanDefinition

在 new FileSystemXmlApplicationContext(new String[] {path2, path1}) 的时候, 会调用父类AbstractApplicationContext的refresh方法,refresh完成了类的加载与实例化,以及依赖注入等操作。refresh的源码如下,重点看: 1、obtainFreshBeanFactory()方法,该方法负责创建工厂,加载xml以及class文件,生成对应的BeanDefinition对象; 2、finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory)方法, 该方法负责根据BeanDefinition创建bean,将依赖的bean注入, 以及完成一系列bean的生命周期。

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public void refresh() throws BeansException, IllegalStateException {
synchronized (this.startupShutdownMonitor) {
// Prepare this context for refreshing.
prepareRefresh();
// Tell the subclass to refresh the internal bean factory.
ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory = obtainFreshBeanFactory();
// Prepare the bean factory for use in this context.
prepareBeanFactory(beanFactory);
try {
// Allows post-processing of the bean factory in context subclasses.
postProcessBeanFactory(beanFactory);
// Invoke factory processors registered as beans in the context.
invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(beanFactory);
// Register bean processors that intercept bean creation.
registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory);
// Initialize message source for this context.
initMessageSource();
// Initialize event multicaster for this context.
initApplicationEventMulticaster();
// Initialize other special beans in specific context subclasses.
onRefresh();
// Check for listener beans and register them.
registerListeners();
// Instantiate all remaining (non-lazy-init) singletons.
finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory);
// Last step: publish corresponding event.
finishRefresh();
}
catch (BeansException ex) {
// Destroy already created singletons to avoid dangling resources.
destroyBeans();
// Reset 'active' flag.
cancelRefresh(ex);
// Propagate exception to caller.
throw ex;
}
}
}


obtainFreshBeanFactory()方法中,重点分析refreshBeanFactory()

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protected ConfigurableListableBeanFactory obtainFreshBeanFactory() {
refreshBeanFactory();
ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory = getBeanFactory();
if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
logger.debug("Bean factory for " + getDisplayName() + ": " + beanFactory);
}
return beanFactory;
}


refreshBeanFactory()方法:

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protected final void refreshBeanFactory() throws BeansException {
if (hasBeanFactory()) {
destroyBeans();
closeBeanFactory();
}
try {
DefaultListableBeanFactory beanFactory = createBeanFactory();
beanFactory.setSerializationId(getId());
customizeBeanFactory(beanFactory);
loadBeanDefinitions(beanFactory);
synchronized (this.beanFactoryMonitor) {
this.beanFactory = beanFactory;
}
}
catch (IOException ex) {
throw new ApplicationContextException("I/O error parsing bean definition source for " + getDisplayName(), ex);
}
}

该方法构造了DefaultListableBeanFactory , 该工厂类中,包含了一个很重要的属性beanDefinitionMap, 用来装名称与beandefinition的映射关系。然后通过loadBeanDefinitions()将xml或者注解的配置,封装成beandefinition,放到beanDefinitionMap中。


loadBeanDefinitions()方法会将refreshBeanFactory构造的DefaultListableBeanFactory装到XmlBeanDefinitionReader中,然后将XmlBeanDefinitionReader作为参数,调用loadBeanDefinitions(beanDefinitionReader ).

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protected void loadBeanDefinitions(DefaultListableBeanFactory beanFactory) throws BeansException, IOException {
// Create a new XmlBeanDefinitionReader for the given BeanFactory.
XmlBeanDefinitionReader beanDefinitionReader = new XmlBeanDefinitionReader(beanFactory);
// Configure the bean definition reader with this context's
// resource loading environment.
beanDefinitionReader.setEnvironment(this.getEnvironment());
beanDefinitionReader.setResourceLoader(this);
beanDefinitionReader.setEntityResolver(new ResourceEntityResolver(this));
// Allow a subclass to provide custom initialization of the reader,
// then proceed with actually loading the bean definitions.
initBeanDefinitionReader(beanDefinitionReader);
loadBeanDefinitions(beanDefinitionReader);
}


loadBeanDefinitions(beanDefinitionReader ) 方法经过层层调用,会进入AbstractBeanDefinitionReader类的方法:loadBeanDefinitions(),该方法加载外部的资源配置文件,然后遍历资源文件, 重点看loadBeanDefinitions(resources) , 如下:

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public int loadBeanDefinitions(String location, Set<Resource> actualResources) throws BeanDefinitionStoreException {
ResourceLoader resourceLoader = getResourceLoader();
if (resourceLoader == null) {
throw new BeanDefinitionStoreException(
"Cannot import bean definitions from location [" + location + "]: no ResourceLoader available");
}
if (resourceLoader instanceof ResourcePatternResolver) {
// Resource pattern matching available.
try {
Resource[] resources = ((ResourcePatternResolver) resourceLoader).getResources(location);
int loadCount = loadBeanDefinitions(resources);
if (actualResources != null) {
for (Resource resource : resources) {
actualResources.add(resource);
}
}
if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
logger.debug("Loaded " + loadCount + " bean definitions from location pattern [" + location + "]");
}
return loadCount;
}
catch (IOException ex) {
throw new BeanDefinitionStoreException(
"Could not resolve bean definition resource pattern [" + location + "]", ex);
}
}
else {
// Can only load single resources by absolute URL.
Resource resource = resourceLoader.getResource(location);
int loadCount = loadBeanDefinitions(resource);
if (actualResources != null) {
actualResources.add(resource);
}
if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
logger.debug("Loaded " + loadCount + " bean definitions from location [" + location + "]");
}
return loadCount;
}
}


跟踪loadBeanDefinitions(resources)方法,一路跟下去,会进入到类DefaultBeanDefinitionDocumentReader的方法doRegisterBeanDefinitions(Element root),如下:

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protected void doRegisterBeanDefinitions(Element root) {
String profileSpec = root.getAttribute(PROFILE_ATTRIBUTE);
if (StringUtils.hasText(profileSpec)) {
Assert.state(this.environment != null, "Environment must be set for evaluating profiles");
String[] specifiedProfiles = StringUtils.tokenizeToStringArray(
profileSpec, BeanDefinitionParserDelegate.MULTI_VALUE_ATTRIBUTE_DELIMITERS);
if (!this.environment.acceptsProfiles(specifiedProfiles)) {
return;
}
}
// Any nested <beans> elements will cause recursion in this method. In
// order to propagate and preserve <beans> default-* attributes correctly,
// keep track of the current (parent) delegate, which may be null. Create
// the new (child) delegate with a reference to the parent for fallback purposes,
// then ultimately reset this.delegate back to its original (parent) reference.
// this behavior emulates a stack of delegates without actually necessitating one.
BeanDefinitionParserDelegate parent = this.delegate;
this.delegate = createDelegate(this.readerContext, root, parent);
preProcessXml(root);
parseBeanDefinitions(root, this.delegate);
postProcessXml(root);
this.delegate = parent;
}

该方法创建了一个委托类 BeanDefinitionParserDelegate,通过跟踪parseBeanDefinitions(root, this.delegate) ,解析工作由该类完成,

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protected void parseBeanDefinitions(Element root, BeanDefinitionParserDelegate delegate) {
if (delegate.isDefaultNamespace(root)) {
NodeList nl = root.getChildNodes();
for (int i = 0; i < nl.getLength(); i++) {
Node node = nl.item(i);
if (node instanceof Element) {
Element ele = (Element) node;
if (delegate.isDefaultNamespace(ele)) {
parseDefaultElement(ele, delegate);
}
else {
delegate.parseCustomElement(ele);
}
}
}
}
else {
delegate.parseCustomElement(root);
}
}


spring自带元素的解析, 也就是在命名空间 http:// www.springframework.org/schema/beans中声明的元素,由parseDefaultElement(ele, delegate)解析; 而其他命名空间定义的元素,由delegate.parseCustomElement(root)完成;我们以parseDefaultElement(ele, delegate)为线索, 元素的解析由类DefaultBeanDefinitionDocumentReader的方法processBeanDefinition(Element ele, BeanDefinitionParserDelegate delegate)完成

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protected void processBeanDefinition(Element ele, BeanDefinitionParserDelegate delegate) {
BeanDefinitionHolder bdHolder = delegate.parseBeanDefinitionElement(ele);
if (bdHolder != null) {
bdHolder = delegate.decorateBeanDefinitionIfRequired(ele, bdHolder);
try {
// Register the final decorated instance.
BeanDefinitionReaderUtils.registerBeanDefinition(bdHolder, getReaderContext().getRegistry());
}
catch (BeanDefinitionStoreException ex) {
getReaderContext().error("Failed to register bean definition with name '" +
bdHolder.getBeanName() + "'", ele, ex);
}
// Send registration event.
getReaderContext().fireComponentRegistered(new BeanComponentDefinition(bdHolder));
}
}

该方法定义了BeanDefinitionHolder, 该类包含了beanDefinition, beanName, aliases三个属性,该类其实是beanDefinition的包装类, 用来过渡一下, 将beanName以及alias指向同一个beanDefinition。跟踪BeanDefinitionReaderUtils.registerBeanDefinition(bdHolder, getReaderContext().getRegistry()), 完成注册的是类DefaultListableBeanFactory的方法registerBeanDefinition(String beanName, BeanDefinition beanDefinition)


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public void registerBeanDefinition(String beanName, BeanDefinition beanDefinition)
throws BeanDefinitionStoreException {
Assert.hasText(beanName, "Bean name must not be empty");
Assert.notNull(beanDefinition, "BeanDefinition must not be null");
if (beanDefinition instanceof AbstractBeanDefinition) {
try {
((AbstractBeanDefinition) beanDefinition).validate();
}
catch (BeanDefinitionValidationException ex) {
throw new BeanDefinitionStoreException(beanDefinition.getResourceDescription(), beanName,
"Validation of bean definition failed", ex);
}
}
synchronized (this.beanDefinitionMap) {
Object oldBeanDefinition = this.beanDefinitionMap.get(beanName);
if (oldBeanDefinition != null) {
if (!this.allowBeanDefinitionOverriding) {
throw new BeanDefinitionStoreException(beanDefinition.getResourceDescription(), beanName,
"Cannot register bean definition [" + beanDefinition + "] for bean '" + beanName +
"': There is already [" + oldBeanDefinition + "] bound.");
}
else {
if (this.logger.isInfoEnabled()) {
this.logger.info("Overriding bean definition for bean '" + beanName +
"': replacing [" + oldBeanDefinition + "] with [" + beanDefinition + "]");
}
}
}
else {
this.beanDefinitionNames.add(beanName);
this.frozenBeanDefinitionNames = null;
}
this.beanDefinitionMap.put(beanName, beanDefinition);
}
resetBeanDefinition(beanName);
}

最终,每个类的beanDefinition, 注册到beanDefinitionMap中,至此,beanDefinition(beanDefinition 是个接口,其实是RootbeanDefinition )完成了注册。几个关键类的关系见上图的右侧部分。

实例化bean、依赖注入、完成生命周期

beandefinition加载完成之后, 非懒加载的class已经被载入,但是目前没有被实例化,回到类AbstractApplicationContext的方法refresh(),实例化通过调用方法finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory)完成, 参数beanFactory中已经装载了beanDefinitionMap。
方法finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory )中, 重点看下面的调用,

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// Instantiate all remaining (non-lazy-init) singletons.
beanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons();

追踪下去, 会到达DefaultListableBeanFactory,该工厂负责是实例化对象, 方法preInstantiateSingletons 会同步遍历beanDefinitionMap,通过getBean(beanName)实例化bean。


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public void preInstantiateSingletons() throws BeansException {
if (this.logger.isInfoEnabled()) {
this.logger.info("Pre-instantiating singletons in " + this);
}
List<String> beanNames;
synchronized (this.beanDefinitionMap) {
// Iterate over a copy to allow for init methods which in turn register new bean definitions.
// While this may not be part of the regular factory bootstrap, it does otherwise work fine.
beanNames = new ArrayList<String>(this.beanDefinitionNames);
}
for (String beanName : beanNames) {
RootBeanDefinition bd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
if (!bd.isAbstract() && bd.isSingleton() && !bd.isLazyInit()) {
if (isFactoryBean(beanName)) {
final FactoryBean<?> factory = (FactoryBean<?>) getBean(FACTORY_BEAN_PREFIX + beanName);
boolean isEagerInit;
if (System.getSecurityManager() != null && factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean) {
isEagerInit = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Boolean>() {
public Boolean run() {
return ((SmartFactoryBean<?>) factory).isEagerInit();
}
}, getAccessControlContext());
}
else {
isEagerInit = (factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean &&
((SmartFactoryBean<?>) factory).isEagerInit());
}
if (isEagerInit) {
getBean(beanName);
}
}
else {
getBean(beanName);
}
}
}
}

追踪getBean(beanName), 会到达doGetBean(), 懒加载的bean的实例化, 也是调用该方法实现对象的实例化,只不过实例化的时机不同而已。如下:

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protected <T> T doGetBean(
final String name, final Class<T> requiredType, final Object[] args, boolean typeCheckOnly)
throws BeansException {
final String beanName = transformedBeanName(name);
Object bean;
// Eagerly check singleton cache for manually registered singletons.
Object sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName);
if (sharedInstance != null && args == null) {
if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
if (isSingletonCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
logger.debug("Returning eagerly cached instance of singleton bean '" + beanName +
"' that is not fully initialized yet - a consequence of a circular reference");
}
else {
logger.debug("Returning cached instance of singleton bean '" + beanName + "'");
}
}
bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(sharedInstance, name, beanName, null);
}
else {
// Fail if we're already creating this bean instance:
// We're assumably within a circular reference.
if (isPrototypeCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
throw new BeanCurrentlyInCreationException(beanName);
}
// Check if bean definition exists in this factory.
BeanFactory parentBeanFactory = getParentBeanFactory();
if (parentBeanFactory != null && !containsBeanDefinition(beanName)) {
// Not found -> check parent.
String nameToLookup = originalBeanName(name);
if (args != null) {
// Delegation to parent with explicit args.
return (T) parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup, args);
}
else {
// No args -> delegate to standard getBean method.
return parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup, requiredType);
}
}
if (!typeCheckOnly) {
markBeanAsCreated(beanName);
}
try {
final RootBeanDefinition mbd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
checkMergedBeanDefinition(mbd, beanName, args);
// Guarantee initialization of beans that the current bean depends on.
String[] dependsOn = mbd.getDependsOn();
if (dependsOn != null) {
for (String dependsOnBean : dependsOn) {
getBean(dependsOnBean);
registerDependentBean(dependsOnBean, beanName);
}
}
// Create bean instance.
if (mbd.isSingleton()) {
sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName, new ObjectFactory<Object>() {
public Object getObject() throws BeansException {
try {
return createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
}
catch (BeansException ex) {
// Explicitly remove instance from singleton cache: It might have been put there
// eagerly by the creation process, to allow for circular reference resolution.
// Also remove any beans that received a temporary reference to the bean.
destroySingleton(beanName);
throw ex;
}
}
});
bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(sharedInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
}
else if (mbd.isPrototype()) {
// It's a prototype -> create a new instance.
Object prototypeInstance = null;
try {
beforePrototypeCreation(beanName);
prototypeInstance = createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
}
finally {
afterPrototypeCreation(beanName);
}
bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(prototypeInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
}
else {
String scopeName = mbd.getScope();
final Scope scope = this.scopes.get(scopeName);
if (scope == null) {
throw new IllegalStateException("No Scope registered for scope '" + scopeName + "'");
}
try {
Object scopedInstance = scope.get(beanName, new ObjectFactory<Object>() {
public Object getObject() throws BeansException {
beforePrototypeCreation(beanName);
try {
return createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
}
finally {
afterPrototypeCreation(beanName);
}
}
});
bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(scopedInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
}
catch (IllegalStateException ex) {
throw new BeanCreationException(beanName,
"Scope '" + scopeName + "' is not active for the current thread; " +
"consider defining a scoped proxy for this bean if you intend to refer to it from a singleton",
ex);
}
}
}
catch (BeansException ex) {
cleanupAfterBeanCreationFailure(beanName);
throw ex;
}
}
// Check if required type matches the type of the actual bean instance.
if (requiredType != null && bean != null && !requiredType.isAssignableFrom(bean.getClass())) {
try {
return getTypeConverter().convertIfNecessary(bean, requiredType);
}
catch (TypeMismatchException ex) {
if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
logger.debug("Failed to convert bean '" + name + "' to required type [" +
ClassUtils.getQualifiedName(requiredType) + "]", ex);
}
throw new BeanNotOfRequiredTypeException(name, requiredType, bean.getClass());
}
}
return (T) bean;
}


这个方法,完成了一整套bean的声明周期,包括构造bean, 注入依赖的bean, 调用init-method等。首先将bean依赖的对象实例化,实例化for循环的 getBean(dependsOnBean)完成,如下:

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final RootBeanDefinition mbd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
checkMergedBeanDefinition(mbd, beanName, args);
// Guarantee initialization of beans that the current bean depends on.
String[] dependsOn = mbd.getDependsOn();
if (dependsOn != null) {
for (String dependsOnBean : dependsOn) {
getBean(dependsOnBean);
registerDependentBean(dependsOnBean, beanName);
}
}


接下来,会按照Singleton和Prototype两种生命周期分别处理,singletion会被cache起来,所以,如果是singleton,只需要实例化一次。 接下来,进入方法

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createBean(beanName, mbd, args);

层层深入,到达AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory的方法doCreateBean,重点是createBeanInstance(beanName, mbd, args),实例化对象以及注入属性;populateBean(beanName,mbd,instanceWrapper);实例化后后处理,完成bean的生命周期。

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protected Object doCreateBean(final String beanName, final RootBeanDefinition mbd, final Object[] args) {
// Instantiate the bean.
BeanWrapper instanceWrapper = null;
if (mbd.isSingleton()) {
instanceWrapper = this.factoryBeanInstanceCache.remove(beanName);
}
if (instanceWrapper == null) {
instanceWrapper = createBeanInstance(beanName, mbd, args);
}
final Object bean = (instanceWrapper != null ? instanceWrapper.getWrappedInstance() : null);
Class<?> beanType = (instanceWrapper != null ? instanceWrapper.getWrappedClass() : null);
// Allow post-processors to modify the merged bean definition.
synchronized (mbd.postProcessingLock) {
if (!mbd.postProcessed) {
applyMergedBeanDefinitionPostProcessors(mbd, beanType, beanName);
mbd.postProcessed = true;
}
}
// Eagerly cache singletons to be able to resolve circular references
// even when triggered by lifecycle interfaces like BeanFactoryAware.
boolean earlySingletonExposure = (mbd.isSingleton() && this.allowCircularReferences &&
isSingletonCurrentlyInCreation(beanName));
if (earlySingletonExposure) {
if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
logger.debug("Eagerly caching bean '" + beanName +
"' to allow for resolving potential circular references");
}
addSingletonFactory(beanName, new ObjectFactory<Object>() {
public Object getObject() throws BeansException {
return getEarlyBeanReference(beanName, mbd, bean);
}
});
}
// Initialize the bean instance.
Object exposedObject = bean;
try {
populateBean(beanName, mbd, instanceWrapper);
if (exposedObject != null) {
exposedObject = initializeBean(beanName, exposedObject, mbd);
}
}
catch (Throwable ex) {
if (ex instanceof BeanCreationException && beanName.equals(((BeanCreationException) ex).getBeanName())) {
throw (BeanCreationException) ex;
}
else {
throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName, "Initialization of bean failed", ex);
}
}
if (earlySingletonExposure) {
Object earlySingletonReference = getSingleton(beanName, false);
if (earlySingletonReference != null) {
if (exposedObject == bean) {
exposedObject = earlySingletonReference;
}
else if (!this.allowRawInjectionDespiteWrapping && hasDependentBean(beanName)) {
String[] dependentBeans = getDependentBeans(beanName);
Set<String> actualDependentBeans = new LinkedHashSet<String>(dependentBeans.length);
for (String dependentBean : dependentBeans) {
if (!removeSingletonIfCreatedForTypeCheckOnly(dependentBean)) {
actualDependentBeans.add(dependentBean);
}
}
if (!actualDependentBeans.isEmpty()) {
throw new BeanCurrentlyInCreationException(beanName,
"Bean with name '" + beanName + "' has been injected into other beans [" +
StringUtils.collectionToCommaDelimitedString(actualDependentBeans) +
"] in its raw version as part of a circular reference, but has eventually been " +
"wrapped. This means that said other beans do not use the final version of the " +
"bean. This is often the result of over-eager type matching - consider using " +
"'getBeanNamesOfType' with the 'allowEagerInit' flag turned off, for example.");
}
}
}
}
// Register bean as disposable.
try {
registerDisposableBeanIfNecessary(beanName, bean, mbd);
}
catch (BeanDefinitionValidationException ex) {
throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName, "Invalid destruction signature", ex);
}
return exposedObject;
}

进入方法 createBeanInstance(beanName, mbd, args),追踪下去,到达类SimpleInstantiationStrategy的方法instantiate(), 如下:

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public Object instantiate(RootBeanDefinition beanDefinition, String beanName, BeanFactory owner) {
// Don't override the class with CGLIB if no overrides.
if (beanDefinition.getMethodOverrides().isEmpty()) {
Constructor<?> constructorToUse;
synchronized (beanDefinition.constructorArgumentLock) {
constructorToUse = (Constructor<?>) beanDefinition.resolvedConstructorOrFactoryMethod;
if (constructorToUse == null) {
final Class<?> clazz = beanDefinition.getBeanClass();
if (clazz.isInterface()) {
throw new BeanInstantiationException(clazz, "Specified class is an interface");
}
try {
if (System.getSecurityManager() != null) {
constructorToUse = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedExceptionAction<Constructor>() {
public Constructor<?> run() throws Exception {
return clazz.getDeclaredConstructor((Class[]) null);
}
});
}
else {
constructorToUse = clazz.getDeclaredConstructor((Class[]) null);
}
beanDefinition.resolvedConstructorOrFactoryMethod = constructorToUse;
}
catch (Exception ex) {
throw new BeanInstantiationException(clazz, "No default constructor found", ex);
}
}
}
return BeanUtils.instantiateClass(constructorToUse);
}
else {
// Must generate CGLIB subclass.
return instantiateWithMethodInjection(beanDefinition, beanName, owner);
}
}

如果有构造器,直接反射,实例化对象; 如果没有构造器,通过CGLIB构造对象。

对象构造成功之后, 需要注入属性,回到方法doCreateBean , 通过以下方法,循环注入:

1
populateBean(beanName, mbd, instanceWrapper)

doCreateBean 中, 追踪方法initializeBean(beanName, exposedObject, mbd),完成后处理。

spring的生命周期可以参考以下两个链接,

http://www.cnblogs.com/zrtqsk/p/3735273.html

http://www.cnblogs.com/V1haoge/p/6106456.html

spring提供了很多扩展点,通过这些扩展点,达到了“开闭原则”的目的, 使得不管是我们自己的bean,或者是基于spring容器实现的框架,很好的插入到spring预先生命的扩展点的“凹槽”中。

以上就是spring对bean加载,初始化的源码简要分析。看源码的时候, 注意以下几点:
1、抓重点,找线索;
2、可以参考活自己画一张自己能够理解的UML图;
3、学习设计;
4、如果碰见问题,带着问题追踪。